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Can you run Windows "inside" MacOS X on an Intel-based Mac?
Parallels rightfully boasts that:
Parallels Desktop for Mac is the first solution that gives Apple users the ability to run Windows, Linux or any other operating system and their critical applications at the same time as Mac OS X on any Intel-powered Mac.
Unlike dual-boot solutions, in which users must completely shut down Mac OS X and endure a full OS start-up cycle to access a important application, Parallels Desktop for Mac empowers users with the ability to run Windows programs. . . without having to give up the usability and functionality of their Mac OS X machine even for a few minutes.
Parallels Desktop for Mac is a commercial application that supports effectively every version of Windows, as well as Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, OS/2 Warp, eComStation, Solaris, and MS-DOS "in secure virtual machines running alongside Mac OS X" and provides "near-native performance", rather than the full speed of a "dual-boot" configuration. VMWare Fusion is a commercial application that also provides similar features and may be better or worse for some users.
VirtualBox is a free open-source "virtualization" application that provides many of the same features as the commercial alternatives. Please note that although VirtualBox is free, the license needed to run a version of Windows is not.
If you have modest performance requirements, you also might want to try Q, which runs "on top of" the QEMU emulator and allows some versions of Windows to run "inside" MacOS X. It's an emulator, and consequently, slower than a virtualization solution, but it's also free.
Another solution for running some Windows applications "inside" MacOS X, without running the Windows operating system, is CodeWeavers CrossOver Mac. CrossOver Mac is not compatible with all applications, but it does not require one to purchase a copy of Windows either.
When booting Windows via Boot Camp, yes, by purchasing and installing a program like Mediafour's MacDrive.
Mediafour advertises that MacDrive for Windows "enables PC users to open, edit, and save files on Mac disks (HFS/HFS+). You can even format Mac disks and burn Mac CDs and DVDs."
On page 13 of the Boot Camp Installation & Setup manual Apple notes that Mac OS X can read and write FAT volumes, but only read NTFS volumes.
Just like you previously could using the "XOM hack", if you create a FAT partition using Boot Camp of 32 GB or smaller, MacOS X can access, read, and write to files on the Windows partition. Please note that this will only work for Windows XP, as the drive is formatted in NTFS to support Windows Vista or Windows 7.
Not with the original "XOM hack" solution or Apple Boot Camp, but Parallels Desktop for Mac, VMWare Fusion, and VirtualBox make it possible to "copy and paste" between MacOS X and Windows, just like you can using Virtual PC on PowerPC-based systems.