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All of the Intel-based Macs can boot a version of Windows. This includes the MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, and Mac Pro models as well as Intel powered systems from the iMac and Mac mini lines. Intel-based Macs also can run Windows, or Windows programs, through a "virtualization" solution like Parallels Desktop for Mac, VMWare Fusion, or CrossOver Mac.
Also see: Which Intel Macs are capable of booting the 32-Bit and 64-Bit versions of Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7? Which are supported by Apple's Boot Camp?
The original "XOM hack" made it possible to install the 32-bit version of Windows XP Pro. One user in The OSX86 Project forums modified the originally released hack to work with Windows Media Center 2005 as well.
The final version of Boot Camp 2.0 provided with MacOS X 10.5 "Leopard" was designed to support Windows XP Home and Pro with SP2 or later as well as all versions of Windows Vista. Boot Camp 3.1 -- which is included with MacOS X 10.6 "Snow Leopard" -- was designed to support 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows Vista and Windows 7 on a variety of Macs. Readers and bloggers reported installing a variety of additional operating systems as well.
Parallels Desktop for Mac supports effectively every version of Windows, as well as Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, OS/2 Warp, eComStation, Solaris, and MS-DOS "in secure virtual machines running alongside Mac OS X". VMWare Fusion likewise supports an exhaustive list of operating systems including every version of Windows as well as a variety of flavors of Linux. VirtualBox also supports a complete list divided into Windows, Linux, and Unix "families".
Yes. It is important to recognize that an Intel-based Mac when booting Windows via Boot Camp is for all practical purposes the same as a Windows "PC".
On one hand, if Windows is installed and running on an Intel-based Mac, the system can take advantage of additional applications and games that are available for the Windows platform, but it also can be compromised in the same ways that can harm any other Windows PC.
In the company FAQ, Parallels likewise notes that:
Parallels Desktop for Mac runs the guest OS in a special virtualized environment that emulates a separate computer. This virtualized computer is as vulnerable to the viruses as a usual PC running Windows. We highly recommend that you install some anti-virus software and firewall in the guest OS.
VMWare Fusion and VirtualBox effectively operate in the same way and can be impacted in the same manner as Parallels Desktop for Mac.
For more information, please also refer to "Can Windows viruses on an Intel-based Mac damage MacOS X?"
Late model PowerPC-based Macs cannot boot Windows like Intel-based Macs. However, these systems are capable of running a variety of versions of Windows in emulation, which is substantially slower.
The best known solution is the discontinued Microsoft Virtual PC 7 which was offered both with Windows XP Home and Windows XP Professional. Microsoft describes the software as "the application that makes it possible for you to access PC-only software, files, networks and devices from your Mac" and notes that version seven is "compatible with [PowerPC G5-based systems and] offers important improvements in support, speed and reliability."
OpenOSX WinTel is available in a "smart Universal Binary" to run on both PowerPC-based and Intel-based Macs. Rather than emulating Windows it provides "full Pentium emulation". It ships with a variety of open-source operating systems, but commercial operating systems such as Windows can be used as well. The website notes that Windows XP is compatible, but recommends Windows 98 for PowerPC-based systems.
Lismore Guest PC also emulates an "x86 PC", comes bundled with DOS, and is ready for you to buy and install Windows with a "built-in Windows Setup Assistant".